You agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts. View our Privacy Policy for more information.

What is Data Minimization? Main Principles & Techniques

Table of content:
Join our newsletter

Your privacy is important to us, privacy policy.

In our data-driven age, where personal information is often a commodity, the concept of data minimization emerges as a powerful ally in safeguarding your privacy without compromising the needs of your business. It's not just about collecting less data; it's about collecting precisely what's needed, when it's needed. Join us on a journey into the world of data minimization—a practice that empowers individuals and organizations to prioritize privacy, achieve compliance with GDPR regulations stated in Article 25, and enhance data protection while minimizing unnecessary data collection.

What is Data Minimization?

Data minimization is a fundamental principle in data privacy and protection. It involves collecting and retaining only the absolute minimum amount of personal data necessary for a specific purpose and also retaining for the shortest duration required. Think of it as packing for a trip: You wouldn't carry a bulky suitcase filled with unnecessary items; instead, you'd carefully select and pack only what's essential for your journey.

Technically, we’re talking about four main operations:

  1. Not collecting what’s not needed to begin with.
  2. Deleting what’s not needed after a certain amount of time.
  3. Substituting sensitive information elements (like names, emails, phone numbers, social security numbers, etc) with tokens.
  4. Data redaction techniques like working with partial data fields when applicable. E.g. only the last 4 digits of a credit card number, or a masked phone number, etc.

Similarly, data minimization encourages organizations to be selective about the personal information they collect and process. It tries to reduce the overarching privacy and regulatory risks that come with managing data overload. Just as packing lightly for a trip lightens the load and makes the journey smoother, data minimization lightens the burden of unnecessary information. Imagine carrying only what you truly need—your journey becomes easier without the weight of excess baggage. Similarly, by minimizing data, the impact of a potential breach is lighter, as there's less sensitive information exposed, reducing the fallout and making recovery more manageable.

While organizations can collect the information they need for legitimate purposes, the accumulation of excessive or unnecessary data should be avoided. This will help to mitigate the potential impact of data breaches, which greatly affect customer privacy. Embracing data minimization is like finding the perfect balance between having what you need and yet using it responsibly and securely.

Importance of Data Minimization

Understanding the vital importance of data minimization is the first step toward a more secure, ethical, and privacy-conscious digital landscape. Let's explore the key reasons why data minimization stands at the forefront of responsible data management: 

  1. Reducing Privacy Risk: Data minimization significantly reduces data exposure risk by reducing the amount of collected data. Or alternatively, by deleting what’s not needed anymore (a la data retention). Limiting the amount of sensitive information that could be stolen helps to mitigate the data breach impact. Which eventually means less privacy damage for your customers.
  2. Promoting Ethical Data Usage: Data minimization promotes ethical data usage, contributing to the building of trust and credibility. Practicing data minimization not only protects individual privacy but also upholds the principles of honesty and integrity in their data-related activities.
  3. Reduced Legal Liability: Minimizing the data collected can reduce legal liability. Holding less data means fewer opportunities for data breaches and privacy violations, which can lead to legal and regulatory issues.
  4. Cost Savings: Data minimization reduces costs for organizations. Storing and processing really large volumes i.e big data, can be expensive in terms of storage infrastructure, data processing resources, and maintenance. By collecting and storing less data, organizations can cut their operational expenses.

GDPR and Data Minimization Principles

Data minimization isn't just a good idea; it's a key part of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). It aligns with the regulation's key principles like transparency and purpose limitation. GDPR has a few fundamental rules, like being clear about what data is collected and only using it for a specific reason. 

Data minimization is really one of the privacy requirements because it means organizations only collect the data they really need. And they have to make it clear to their users by employing a web privacy policy (open to their audience), or by the cookie banners stating what data is being collected and its purpose. It's all about being ethical and careful with personal information.

In July 2019, British Airways (BA) faced a massive data breach in which the personal and financial details of approximately 500,000 customers were compromised. The breach occurred because of poor security practices and a failure to adequately protect customer data. 

The Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) found that British Airways had not implemented adequate security measures to protect customer information. More significantly, the company was found to be storing an excessive amount of customer data beyond what was necessary for the transaction, which violated the principle of data minimization under GDPR.

As a result, British Airways was fined US$222.89 million, one of the largest fines under GDPR. This incident serves as a clear example of the consequences of failing to adhere to GDPR principles, including data minimization.

How to Implement GDPR’s Data Minimization Requirements?

Data minimization is not a one-size-fits-all solution, but rather a systematic and process-intensive effort that organizations must undertake to ensure compliance with GDPR and protect individuals' privacy. There's no silver bullet, but by following these structured procedures, organizations can navigate the complex landscape of data management and privacy protection with precision and purpose.

  1. Data Mapping and Assessment: Understand the data you collect, its sources, and processing purposes.
  2. Review Data Collection: Scrutinize data collection processes for necessity and transparency.
  3. Clear Consent Management: Ensure informed and explicit consent processes.
  4. Data Retention Policies: Define and implement policies for how long data is retained based on necessity, ensuring that the data lifecycle is managed properly.
  5. Anonymization: Implement techniques for data protection while maintaining utility.
  6. Regular Data Audits: Continuously assess compliance and data necessity.
  7. Training and Documentation: Educate staff and maintain records of policies and procedures.
  8. Ongoing Commitment: Recognize data minimization as a continuous process.
How to implement GDPR’s data minimization requirements from data mapping/assessment, review data collection, clear consent management, data retention policies, anonymization, regular data audits, training and documentation, and ongoing commitment

Data Minimization Techniques

Data minimization is like a multifaceted toolkit, filled with techniques that make sure data is handled with precision and purpose. In the following section, we've gathered a comprehensive array of these techniques, each with its own unique power to minimize data effectively.

Data Masking

Data masking is the process of protecting sensitive information within data sets while allowing legitimate use. IT teams and database administrators are typically responsible for implementing data masking techniques. They configure databases and data management systems to mask sensitive data, ensuring that sensitive data - such as credit card numbers - remain obscured to all users, including the data owner, to enhance security and privacy.

Some of the methodologies used to protect sensitive data include data masking techniques. Data substitution replaces sensitive information with structurally similar fictitious data. Shuffling rearranges data elements within a dataset, obscuring the original order. Character masking and number masking protect specific characters or digits within data fields, ensuring the preservation of the data's format.

Data Retention Policies (Including Data Deletion)

Establishing data retention policies necessitates collaboration between data governance teams, compliance officers, and IT teams. Data governance teams design policies specifying the duration for which different types of data will be retained. Compliance officers ensure that these policies adhere to data protection regulations, and IT teams implement automated data retention processes.

The importance of data retention policies goes beyond just preserving data; it encompasses data deletion as well. Data minimization mandates not just storing data for the right amount of time but also ensuring that data is promptly and securely deleted when it's no longer needed, i.e. when the data expires. The IT team usually sets rules and policies around data deletion. 

Consent Management

Consent management involves close collaboration between compliance officers, legal departments, and IT teams. Compliance officers design consent management processes, legal departments ensure that consent practices adhere to regulations and to the web privacy policy,, and IT teams implement mechanisms for individuals to provide and manage their consent preferences.

Data Collection Policies

The decision to not collect data in the first place is typically a collaborative effort involving product teams and data governance teams. Product teams define the specific necessity for data collection, outlining the purposes and objectives. Meanwhile, data governance teams play a crucial role in ensuring that the principles of data minimization are consistently upheld, aligning data collection practices with both regulatory requirements and organizational goals.


De-identification involves removing personally identifiable information (PII) from data while retaining its utility. Data scientists, data analysts, and IT teams are key players in the implementation of de-identification techniques. Another highly known and recommended technique by the GDPR is called data pseudonymization. Pseudonymization allows the replacement of identifiable data with pseudonyms, thereby enhancing privacy and compliance (which is often technically done with data tokenization).


Tokenization is a data minimization technique that replaces sensitive information, such as credit card numbers or personal identification numbers (PINs), with randomly generated non-sensitive tokens. These tokens are often unrelated to the original data but maintain referential integrity to the data source. The original sensitive data is securely stored in a separate token vault. IT and cybersecurity teams are responsible for implementing tokenization. They select appropriate tokenization solutions and configure them to tokenize data at data entry points. 

Piiano Vault provides a tokenization engine that creates non-sensitive tokens that reference sensitive data, serving as a “handle” to the original information. Only authorized users can detokenize these original tokens to access the actual data value. These tokens travel securely through non-secure systems, keeping the systems out of compliance while preserving certain data properties, such as format and order.

Data Encryption

Data encryption is a robust technique for protecting sensitive information by converting it into ciphertext using encryption algorithms. This ensures that data remains secure both in transit and at rest. Encryption is a fundamental component of data security, and it plays a critical role in data protection compliance. 

Business Benefits of Data Minimization

Business benefits of data minimization from data democratization, to simplified business operations, strengthened data privacy, compliance with data regulations, improved customer trust, and reduced impact of data breaches

Data minimization, the practice of collecting and retaining only essential data, holds several key advantages that positively impact businesses across various industries:

Data Democratization

Due to data anonymization, data can be shared more freely within the organization, as employees accessing the data may not know whom it belongs to, promoting a more open and collaborative data environment. For instance, consider a large retail corporation that collects customer transaction data. By anonymizing this data, various teams, from marketing to inventory management, can access and analyze it without concern for individual customer privacy. Access to data becomes democratized as relevant teams can readily utilize the essential information they need, without wading through oceans of irrelevant data. This simplification enhances business agility, enabling faster decision-making and a more responsive approach to customer demands.

Simplifies Business Operations

Imagine an e-commerce company dealing with vast amounts of customer data daily. By practicing data minimization, the company ensures that it collects only the essential information required for processing orders, managing customer accounts, and personalizing recommendations. This streamlined approach simplifies operations across various departments, including customer support, order fulfillment, and data analysis. With less data to handle and manage, the company can allocate resources more efficiently and focus on delivering exceptional customer experiences.

Strengthens Data Privacy

Let’s look at a scenario for a healthcare provider responsible for safeguarding patients' medical records. Data minimization can be the backbone in ensuring patients' privacy. By only collecting and retaining vital health data, the provider minimizes the risk of data breaches and unauthorized access. It's akin to securing a vault with fewer valuables; fewer vulnerabilities mean stronger security. Patients can trust that their most sensitive health information is kept under a tight digital lock and key, instilling confidence in the provider's commitment to privacy.

Compliance With Data Regulations

For any multinational corporation, compliance with regulations like the European Union's GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) is essential. Data minimization ensures that the corporation collects and processes only what is necessary, aligning perfectly with these strict laws. This compliance not only mitigates legal risks and hefty fines but also streamlines the organization's global operations, helping it navigate the complex regulatory landscape.

Improved Customer Trust

In an age where data breaches and privacy scandals dominate headlines, customers are increasingly discerning about whom they trust with their personal information. A financial institution that practices data minimization earns the confidence of its clients. By limiting the data it collects and retains to what is essential for financial transactions, the institution signals its commitment to customer privacy. This trust is invaluable in an industry where safeguarding sensitive financial information is paramount. Customers feel safer knowing their data is handled responsibly.

Reduces the Impact of Data Breaches

Consider a prominent corporation, one whose name frequently graces the headlines. In the unfortunate event of a data breach, the consequences are substantial. Not only does the corporation risk the loss of critical company information, but also the exposure of sensitive data belonging to their employees and customers. Data minimization serves as a protective barrier, ensuring that only the utmost necessary data is retained. In the event of a breach, this approach mitigates the extent of damage by prioritizing the safeguarding of vital information. This practice is of paramount importance for any corporation aspiring to evade unfavorable media attention, as data breaches can severely impact a brand's reputation.

Technical Benefits of Data Minimization

Data minimization offers numerous technical advantages that are crucial for organizations in today's data-driven landscape. These benefits include:

Privacy By Design

By implementing data minimization techniques, organizations embed privacy principles directly into their system architecture. This ensures data collection and processing methods are privacy-centric by default, reducing the risk of unintentional data exposure and overall data protection. This way organizations are complying with all data protection regulations and build trust with users from the ground up.

Enhances Data Security Posture

Data minimization plays a big role in making an organization's data more secure. By preserving only crucial data, it minimizes the accessibility of sensitive information to unauthorized individuals. Plus, it makes it easier to use strong security tools like encryption and access controls, making your data even safer. Better data security doesn't just keep the bad guys out; it also helps protect your organization's name and goodwill, and builds trust with the people who rely on it.

Faster Response to Data Requests

Data minimization is like having a well-organized library with only the essential books, making it easier to find and share information quickly. When you don't have to sift through loads of unnecessary data, you can respond faster to requests for specific information, whether it's from customers, partners, or internal teams. This speed in retrieving data enhances overall efficiency and responsiveness, contributing to a more agile and customer-centric organization. Technically speaking, when querying for fewer columns from a database, the operation should be faster.

Lower Costs for Storing / Managing Big Data

Consider the scale of data in an organization, where each column of data becomes increasingly significant when dealing with datasets that contain, for example, billions of rows of tabular data or streams of images, audio and video. In this context, data minimization becomes a cost-saving strategy. It reduces costs on multiple fronts.

It reduces storage expenses by minimizing the data footprint, leading to substantial savings in storage infrastructure. Simultaneously, it decreases data processing costs, as organizations need to process less data, efficiently allocating resources. Additionally, it simplifies and economizes data backups by reducing the volume of data, resulting in cost savings concerning both storage and backup management. This approach offers a comprehensive solution for cost-efficiency across the data lifecycle, benefiting organizations in terms of budget and resource allocation.

How Can Piiano Vault Help Implement Data Minimization

Implementing data minimization can be a complex journey, but with Piiano Vault, the path becomes much smoother and more efficient. Piiano Vault offers a robust set of features that can save organizations significant time and effort, allowing them to jumpstart their data minimization initiatives. Here's how Piiano Vault can help:

Piiano Vault Features Description
Data Retention Data minimization often involves setting up policies to retain only the necessary data for a specified period. Piiano Vault streamlines this by allowing organizations to define data retention policies easily.
Data Archiving As part of the bigger data lifecycle, it is important to put the data in archive when it reaches a particular stage. Piiano Vault streamlines the data lifecycle by further automating the Data Archiving process.
Cascaded Data Deletion Deleting data is a fundamental aspect of data minimization. Piiano Vault includes cascaded data deletion capabilities, simplifying the removal of data that is no longer required. With a single API call, Vault removes all the data that is associated with a specific primary key/identifier. This easily removes the complexity and errors associated with manual implementation over various tables or different data stores.
Tokenization Engine Piiano Vault's tokenization engine provides a powerful tool for replacing sensitive information with tokens, ensuring that the actual data remains hidden. It enables organizations to systematically substitute all instances of the same sensitive identifier with tokens, leading to a reduction in the presence of sensitive data throughout the system, and therefore, minimizing the risks with handling sensitive information.

Piiano Vault's pre-built functionality offers a significant advantage for developers by saving organizations years of development time of privacy engineering common infrastructure. By leveraging these features, organizations can kickstart their data minimization efforts, improving data security, compliance, and operational efficiency. It's a valuable tool for organizations looking to embrace data minimization without the complexities of building these capabilities from scratch.


In the era of data, where privacy and innovation are paramount, data minimization emerges as a dual solution. It reduces the impact of potential breaches, with data retention and tokenization as its steadfast allies. By prioritizing the non-collection of unnecessary data, it encourages a cultural shift, enabling organizations to harmonize business growth and privacy protection. As a result, data minimization fuels innovation, delivering a streamlined path to both data utility and security, fostering a future where our data is both safeguarded and an enabler of progress.

Here’s a funny story: we once met this data protection officer who said the company he works for doesn’t collect any sensitive data. We stayed mouth-dropped, not understanding how it even makes sense. Maybe the truth is, he probably protects the business from collecting sensitive data, smart.

Share article

Powering Data Protection

Skip PCI compliance with our tokenization APIs

Skip PCI compliance with our tokenization APIs

It all begins with the cloud, where applications are accessible to everyone. Therefore, a user or an attacker makes no difference per se. Technically, encrypting all data at rest and in transit might seem like a comprehensive approach, but these methods are not enough anymore. For cloud hosted applications, data-at-rest encryption does not provide the coverage one might expect.

John Marcus

Senior Product Owner

const protectedForm = 
pvault.createProtectedForm(payment Div, 
Thank you! Your submission has been received!

We care about your data in our privacy policy

Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.